Raima Database Manager™ (RDM)
High-Performance Embedded Database Technology
Raima Database Manager (RDM)™ is an embedded, cross-platform, small-footprint, in-memory database developed for the IoT and the edge market. It is fast and persistent, optimized for performance and reliability (see our performance testing benchmarks). RDM can be used through a call from it's extensive suite of API's including the C/C++ cursor, Java JDBC, and C# ADO.NET. It also supports the use of standard third-party tools through the ODBC driver manager.
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RDM needs only 350k of RAM and minimal CPU speeds to fully operate. With more power in the system, RDM will fully utilize it all to perform even faster but that is not required.
Through the use of SymmetricDS, Raima can store data on the edge and easily replicate that data to RDM or any cloud database.
Maintain performance as demands on the system increase by adding further resources. Possible through SMP and thread support, plus the capability of scaling on more than one server.
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Raima Database Manager (RDM)™ at a glance
|Functions||RDM Core||RDM Enterprise|
|AES Encryption 128,192, 256 bits||✔||✔|
|Embedded / Real-time Application||✔||✔|
|Developer Environment Integration||✔||✔|
|Support for Dynamic Schema Modifications||✔||✔|
|Snapshots/Multiversion Concurrency Control(MVCC)||✔||✔|
|AVL, B-Tree, Hash, R-Tree Indexes||✔||✔|
|3rd Party Utilities||✔|
|3rd Party Replication||✔|
|Interfaces and Programming Languages||RDM Core||RDM Enterprise|
|Modern Cursor API||✔||✔|
|SQL Inner and Outer Joins||✔|
|SQL Scrollable Cursors||✔|
|SQL Stored Procedures||✔|
|Java JDBC 4.2||✔|
|Supported Platforms/Operating Systems||RDM Core||RDM Enterprise|
|WindRiver VxWorks RTP||✔||✔|
|Green Hills Integrity||✔||✔|
|NO OS (bare-bones)||✔||✔|
|Database Specifications||RDM Core||RDM Enterprise|
|Maximum Databases Open Simultaneously||No Limit||No Limit|
|Maximum Rows Per Database||No Limit||No Limit|
|Maximum Size of Database File||Limited only by file system||Limited only by file system|
|Maximum Tables Per Database||No Limit||No Limit|
|Maximum Records Per Table||No Limit||No Limit|
|Maximum Keys Per Database||No Limit||No Limit|
|Maximum Fields Per Table||No Limit||No Limit|
|Maximum Row Size||64K (excluding BLOB or VARCHAR)||64K (excluding BLOB or VARCHAR)|
|RAM Requirements||Minimum 200K, User configurable||Minimum 350K, User configurable|
Flexible Licensing Options
Raima has always made the RDM source code available at a reasonable cost. Raima and its experienced developers are proud of this code and don’t mind if you take a peek, or even step through it in your own debugging system. Source code comes complete with project files necessary for you to build it yourself.
Since RDM can be freely downloaded and licensed for application development at a very low entry fee until it is ready to deploy, and with source code availability, there is very little cost difference between Raima’s commercial licensing and Open Source with support or for commercial use.
RDM Core - This introductory package is typically used in applications designed for edge IoT devices, where performance and footprint are of great importance. Experience direct access to a comprehensive and easy-to-use low-level cursor C API for ultimate control while also providing a C++ API for object-oriented programming.
RDM Enterprise - This package is perfectly designed for application developers who are familiar with SQL and want to decrease development time. It is Raima’s complete product package with the full set of features and functionality. The enterprise package is designed for multiple industry standard APIs to connect to third-party tools for purposes such as replication, reporting, analysis, and administration.
Architecture – A Deeper Dive
RDM’s runtime environment is composed as two powerful but well-defined modules:
- The Runtime Library – This re-entrant linkable library becomes part of your executable program. It maintains a cache of database objects as it responds to function calls from your program.
- The Transactional File Server – This tight, multi-user server interacts with one or more Runtime Libraries concurrently. It manages access to database files. The TFS responds to runtime requests to read objects, to lock objects, or to apply transactional changes.
As a re-entrant library, RDM fully supports multi-threaded applications. Each thread may open a database and operate on it concurrently with the others.
As a linkable library, RDM operates on data kept in a heap-based cache. Its robust APIs give you full visibility and control over the data. SQL is available through a C-based API, but also accessible through 3rd party tools. Other APIs allow fine-tuning of database operations using a cursor view or an object-oriented view.
Transactional File Server
At its core, the TFS is a library of functions. These functions are called by the runtime library. If the TFS is running in a separate process, its functions are called as RPCs (Remote Procedure Calls) using TCP/IP between computers and shared memory within the same computer.
However, the TFS functions may be linked directly into your application also. This has significant performance benefits and simplicity in operation. It’s faster because the Remote Procedure Calls become Local Procedure Calls (in-process). It’s simpler because everything is running within your program and there is no separate process to start first.
Yes, the Runtime Library and TFS are powerful and well-defined, but they can be configured in several ways. The figures below show just a few.
Multi-Computer Configuration - Amazingly Fast
When multiple computers are involved, they communicate through TCP/IP. If client and server are instead on the same computer, shared memory is used to speed it up.
Multi-Thread Single Computer Configuration - Even Faster
But when the runtime and TFS are in the same process, the inter-process communication is avoided, resulting in even more speed.
Multi-threaded applications are great for handling multiple windows on a screen, each with independent contents.
Single-Thread (exclusive access) - Faster than that!
Simpler, single-user applications have an advantage because there is no concurrent access to the database, hence no locking or waiting.
Single-Thread, In-Memory Database - The Absolute Fastest
Now, load the database from disk into memory and you have database management with all the stops pulled.
The RDM in-memory database option allows for volatile (it goes away when the application stops) and persistent (loaded from disk and saved to disk) databases.
It’s faster because there is no disk latency for reading and no waiting for disk writes during a transaction commit.
These are vulnerable to data loss if the application terminates without saving the data. Sometimes it’s a risk worth taking!