了解數據庫管理概念

9 月 18

什麼是數據庫管理?

數據庫管理是收集,存儲,組織,維護和分析數據的過程。組織利用各種數據庫管理實踐和工具來推動基於數據的決策和戰略規劃。有許多適用於數據庫管理的解決方案,其中最常見的是數據庫管理系統(DBMS)。

 

什麼是數據庫管理系統(DBMS)?

A DBMS enables organizations to effectively manage databases. DevOps and DataOps teams leverage DBMS technology to perform tasks such as creating and updating databases, as well as reading, writing, and deleting data. 

DBMS的功能

DBMS的主要目的是提供一個接口,使組織能夠跨團隊和部門一致地標準化數據管理。這是通過管理三個核心方面來實現的:

 

  • 數據-which is aggregated, stored, and analyzed by the organization. 
  • 數據庫引擎-enables organizations to access, store, and modify data. 
  • 數據庫架構-determines the logical structure for each database. 

 

如果管理得當,這些核心方面可以幫助組織在整個數據生命週期中確保數據完整性,安全性和並發性。

 

DBMS通常為以下任務提供功能: 

 

  • 數據管理修改 
  • 監視和調整 
  • 數據安全 
  • 備份與還原

 

DBMS的高級功能包括:

 

  • 自動化-for a wide variety of tasks, including logging and auditing, or rollbacks and restarts.
  • 集權-unify data processes into one visualized workflow, accessed via multiple devices and locations, and enable different users to display different views of one database schema.
  • 存取控制-determine roles and privileges for each user, to ensure users gain limited access to corporate data and prevent abuse of privileges. 
  • 方便使用的-DBMSs often provide an intuitive user experience, which enables users of different skill levels to access and leverage data.

 

DBMS的另一個巨大優勢是數據獨立性。當DBMS設計用於邏輯和物理數據獨立性時,用戶和開發人員在移動數據時無需執行修改。如果DBMS與應用程序編程接口(API)連接到任何新數據源,則該DBMS可以處理此任務。

DBMS概念

DBMS解決方案配備了一組獨特的組件,每個組件負責執行不同的任務。以下是最基本的DBMS組件:

 

  • 軟件-A DBMS is a software-based system that provides a management interface, which helps users control databases and data sources.
  • 數據-DBMS provides controls for managing operational data, such as records and metadata, as well as index files, data dictionaries, and administrative information. 
  • 程序-documents that standardize database management, used as guidelines by employees and users, and as automation policies.  
  • 數據庫語言-DBMS use various languages to perform tasks such as controlling user access and specifying database schema. DBMS languages include Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Control Language (DCL), and Database Access Language (DAL).
  • 查詢處理器-serves as a communication intermediary between users and the DBMS data engine. The query processor enables users to query requests, for example, by entering instructions in Structured Query Language (SQL).
  • 運行時數據庫管理器-enables DBMS to centralize management of runtime data. A runtime database manager validates user authorizations, processes approved queries, determines which strategy provides optimal query results, ensures data integrity, and handles any task that requires handling query and runtime data.
  • 數據庫管理員-handles database jobs and enables administrators to perform database operations and maintenance tasks, including 數據備份 以及還原,克隆,刪除,更新數據庫和執行補丁。   
  • 數據庫引擎-performs the main data storage and retrieval tasks. A database engine can be built into the DBMS software or as a remote resource accessed via an API. 
  • 報告生成器-enables users to extract DBMS files and display the information in structured formats, according to predefined specifications. Report generation processes help users perform analyses and derive actionable insights.

DBMS類別和技術

有各種各樣的DBMS解決方案,專用於不同的數據類型,源和用例。以下是最常見的DBMS類別和技術類型:

 

  • 關係數據庫管理系統-a relational database management system (RDBMS) is designed specifically for relational databases, which store data in structured formats such as columns and rows. Popular RDBMS solutions include Oracle Database, MySQL, and Microsoft SQL Server.
  • 網絡數據庫管理系統-a database in which inter-record type relationships are organized using one-to-many sets. This differs from a Hierarchical Model in that it allows a record type to be a member of more than one set. Individual rows can be retrieved using API functions that allow an application to navigate through individual set instances. Raima Database is one of the known database vendors that have network capabilities.
  • NoSQL數據庫管理系統-a NoSQL database can store data that is “not only SQL”, in formats that are not only relational. Mainly, NoSQL databases enable you to store schemaless data, and this type of design requires different management capabilities. Popular NoSQL DBMS solutions include MongoDB, Amazon DynamoDB, Cassandra, and Azure Cosmos DB.
  • 內存中的DBMS(IMDBMS)-also known as main memory DBMS, these systems leverage memory for data storage, ensuring fast access to data. IMDBMS, which uses fewer CPU instructions than disk-based systems, is typically used to improve performance, reducing I/O latency and processing overhead.
  • 多模型DBMS-can support multiple types of data models. This type of data strategy is often supported by NoSQL solutions, which are often required to store different types of data together. 
  • NewSQL數據庫管理系統-designed like RDBMS platforms with functionalities that support NoSQL distribution. NewSQL數據庫管理系統 通常會提供管理高級數據的功能,例如符合ACID和實時處理的功能。流行的NewSQL DBMS包括Google Cloud Spanner,MemSQL,Splice Machine和ClustrixDB。

Raima的數據庫管理概念

Raima數據庫管理器(也稱為RDM)是針對IoT Edge用例開發的RDBMS(關係數據庫管理系統)。通過將網絡和關係模型技術結合在一個系統中,RDM使您可以高效地組織和訪問信息,而不必考慮數據的複雜性。 Raima數據庫系統經過優化,可以作為具有將數據持久保存到磁盤的內存DBMS或完全基於磁盤的數據庫系統運行。它具有低I / O延遲和最小處理開銷的高性能。 

 

Raima數據庫管理器為開發人員提供了豐富的數據庫功能集,包括需要最少資源的多個API和索引方法。適用於在實時操作系統上運行的嵌入式設備和應用程序的出色DBMS。 

 

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